Inputs

Broodstock and hatcheries

There are 18 professional hatcheries in Brazil. Some bigger farmers like Potiporá have their own hatchery. Broodstock is kept in big recirculating tanks of about 20,000 liters. In each tank there are between 80 and 100 mature shrimps, of which 50% is male and 50% is female. Light and temperature in the tanks are controlled and the water is aerated continuously. The shrimps are fed 6 times during the day and every day around 10-12% of the female shrimps have eggs. These shrimps are being selected and brought to separated ‘de-egging’ tanks. After 5 to 6 hours, the eggs are being removed, cleaned, treated against bacteria’s and diseases and stocked in big plastic boxes with constant aeration. After hatching, the larvae are put in incubators. The larvae stay in the incubator for about 18-20 days, which is constantly controlled on temperature, oxygen levels, ammonia, nitrite, pH, etc. In the last stage, the larvae are fed with microalgae, Artemia salina and micro pellets. When they reach the size of 10 pieces per gram, having had a mortality rate of about 30-40%, they are being conditioned in plastic bags or polystyrene boxes with water, oxygen and Artemia salina and transported by truck or air to the farms.

Feed

Aquafeed production was 1.1 million tonnes in 2016, which is only a small share compared to other feed segments in Brazil. About 40% of the aquafeed is allocated to a variety of local, Amazonian species (Undercurrent news, 2017; Alltech, 2016). Brazil has an advantage as it is an important producer of grains and livestock so feed ingredients do not have to be imported reducing the costs for aquafeed; commodities like soybean meal, corn and animal by-products can serve as protein sources for aquafeed. In total there are around 154 commercial feed companies operation on a commercial basis. 90% Of these companies (140) are member of the The National Union of Animal Feed Industry (Sindiracoes, s.d). Feed is supplied by the bigger feed mills in Brazil like Aquatech, Purina and Nicovita, which have stores in all important farming areas. The pellets normally contain fish meal, grains and some (permitted) additives. The farmers don’t use chemicals nor medicines but probiotics is a regular input.

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