Broodstock and fry
Brazil has its own domestic brood stock that supplies hatcheries with tilapia fry. Some larger vertically integrated companies have their own hatcheries and nurseries have their own hatchery on site, like Netuno and Geneseas. Smaller and mid-scale farmers depend on the bigger companies or on specialized hatcheries / nurseries for their fry.
Feed and chemicals
All tilapia farmers use commercial pellet feed. Aquafeed production was 1.1 million tonnes in 2016, a small share compared to other feed segments in Brazil, and about 40% of the aquafeed is allocated to a variety of local, Amazonian species (Undercurrent news, 2017; Alltech, 2016). Brazil has an advantage as it is an important producer of grains and livestock so feed ingredients do not have to be imported reducing the costs for aquafeed; commodities like soybean meal, corn and animal by-products can serve as protein sources for aquafeed. In total there are around 154 commercial feed companies operation on a commercial basis. 90% Of these companies (140) are member of the The National Union of Animal Feed Industry (Sindiracoes, s.d). Due to the abundant natural resources of Brazil, all internationally known feed companies have factories throughout the country.
The use of chemicals is typically associated with pond cleaning and pH balance (lime) or pond fertilization (phosphorus). Probiotics are used during farming.