Landing & trading
Indonesia has a large number of landing sites and ports where different vessels are able to land their fish. The landing sites and ports are the same as described in landing and trading section for tuna and bycatch
. Bitung and West Java are important landing sites for canning, as a lot of the canning factories are located there. Since there is little information on main or important sardine and mackerel landing sites as well as trading channels, the main focus of this section is on tuna.
The Indonesian supply chain channels are complex, and depend on factors like i.a. vessel type and gear, vessel ownership, tuna species, landing site. Tuna canneries mainly purchase skipjack tuna and to a lesser extent yellowfin tuna, bigeye tuna and albacore. The biggest part of the catches is supplied by industrial vessels. Purse seine vessels mainly supply skipjack tuna and yellowfin tuna. Pelagic longline vessels generally supply the albacore they catch to the canners, but the yellowfin tuna and bigeye tuna to the frozen market. This is mainly because of the availability of on board freezing facilities on the longline vessels which enables the fisherman to maintain higher tuna grades.
Catches from the artisanal fleet that supply to the canned tuna supply chain (including small purse seiners and fisherman using gill nets) are in general landed in the small ports and landing sites and then traded by the middleman to processing factories. In case of sourcing from industrial vessels, canning companies may have their own vessels or they may contract vessels. In general the boat owners will sell their high grade and large/adult tuna to the fresh and the frozen market. Only the low grade, juvenile and smaller tuna species (especially in case of the more expensive species such as yellowfin tuna) are sold to the canneries.
As the canneries are often confronted with a lack of raw materials, some will also import raw materials from neighbouring Pacific countries. Fish imports are currently only allowed via five public ports, namely Belawan Port (Medan), Tanjung Priok (Jakarta) (Muara Baru), Tanjung Mas (Semarang), Tanjung Perak (Surabaya) and Soekarno-Hatta Port (Makassar) (Kompas Print, 2016). With the new regulations in place, foreign vessels are unable to take Indonesian resources elsewhere for processing, which should in the future lead to increased landings of raw materials for the domestic canning industry. A big challenge for Indonesia will be to upgrade domestic facilities close to the landing centres to be able to absorb the increased landings in a proper way.