Situated off the southeast coast of Africa, Madagascar is the fourth largest island in the world, with a population of 25 million. Madagascar’s economic prospects for the upcoming years are favourable, but will depend on political stability and the enactment of structural reforms. The country has 5,600 km of coastline and inland water bodies, amounting to more than 550 thousand hectares. Fisheries and aquaculture play an important socio-economic role in the country. The sector represents about 7% of its GDP. Madagascar is mainly famous for its small but very well developed shrimp farming sector. The semi-intensive farmed shrimp produced in Madagascar are France’s main source for organic-certified shrimp. However, Madagascar has more to offer. The country has an industrial and artisanal fishing fleet which has expanded in recent years and the potential to develop a largely untapped marine (e.g. seaweed and sea cucumber) and freshwater (e.g. carps, tilapia and spirulina) aquaculture potential.