that operate one or two ponds or cages. Only a few bigger companies engage in large-scale tilapia production operating integrated supply chains. The supply chain is characterized by a lack of transparency and few quality controls. Some large producers with integrated supply chains produce larger sized tilapias in a more controlled fashion and with suitable traceability and quality control measures in place. Their tilapia are mostly processed into fillets for retailers that serve the domestic market. These companies are also responsible for the countries limited tilapia exports. In both the country side and in urban centres, tilapia is an important and cheap source of animal protein for families with limited spending power. With an estimated population of 20 million people, Manila and surroundings cities are the country’s largest market for tilapia. For this reason the main tilapia producing provinces are located around the capital region.
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