Farming

There are between 10,000 – 20,000 shrimp farmers operating as small businesses and are organized in farmer cooperatives. Large-scale vertically integrated enterprises, like Charoen Popkand Group (CP) and Thai Union that have a 40% and 10% national production share, own a few farms but mostly source raw material from other shrimp farmers. Farmer cooperative occur in two structures. Small scale cooperatives buy input material (seed, feed) together and sell their harvest together. Farmers Cooperatives (Feeder Clubs) buy their input individually and sell their own harvests. These farmers mostly work together to address and overcome regional issues, e.g. a Farmers Cooperative coming together to discuss EMS and how to reorganize their farms to get better productivity. Most of the farmers are registered with de DOF, but there are also unregistered farmers. The majority of farmers practice intensive monoculture farming, contributing around 80% of the production. A smaller group uses semi-intensive, mono- and polyculture farming that is responsible for the remaining 20% of the national production.

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