Broodstock and hatcheries
Broodstock is imported from Hawaii and Singapore, and kept in the hatcheries. There are 350 commercial hatcheries and between 1,000-2,000 backyard hatcheries. However over 60% of the seed came from the CP group, which have around 30 hatcheries. Following the recent EMS outbreaks many farmers switched their sourcing to larger hatcheries due to improved post-larvae quality and survival rate. Hatcheries are spread out along the the different farming cooperatives at the coastal zones.
Feed and chemicals
About 90% of all aquaculture species in Thailand are fed commercial feed. Thailand produces around 20 million tonnes of compound feed annually. While soybean meal and fish meal are locally available the amount is insufficient to meet demand, so the majority of feed ingredients need to be imported driving up feed prices (Amisy, 2018). Thailand’s feed industry comprises over 1,000 producers, of which 200 are medium to large sized businesses. Approximately 150 companies are aquafeed specialists, of which 70 of them are producers of complete aquafeed (Allaboutfeed, 2009). According to more recent numbers, there are 66 registered aquaculture feed manufacturers by the DOF, of which 26 produce fish and shrimp feed, and 17 solely produce shrimp feed. Large feed suppliers include the companies CP and Inteqc. 50 to 100 companies supply farm chemicals and materials for water disinfection, improvement and management.