Farming

In total there are several hundred thousand individual households, companies and associations involved in shrimp farming in Vietnam. In 2015 there were estimated to be around 14,524 Litopenaeus vannamei farms and 167,449 Penaeus monodon farms. Ownership and size of shrimp farms are very diverse. There is a large number of individual households with farms of a few hectares in size, while some companies own very large farms. Of the total 181,973 farmers, only 750 operated on commercial scale. The main farmed species, P. monodon and L. vannamei, are farmed in different production systems. L. vannamei is exclusively farmed in intensive outdoor ponds or super-intensive indoor operations, while P. monodon production occurs in integrated shrimp-mangrove systems, improved extensive systems and intensive production systems. P. monodon production covered a total farm area of 580,000 ha in 2015 and is concentrated in the Mekong Delta; in the provinces Ca Mau, Bac Lieu, Kien Giang, Soc Trang, Ben Tre and Tra Vinh. Shrimps from intensive farming systems account for approximately 60% of total P. monodon production. The intensive P. monodon farms are concentrated in the provinces Soc Trang and Bac Lieu. Extensive systems and improved extensive systems are mostly located in Ca Mau province, which has a total shrimp farming area of 253,300 hectares. L. vannamei covered a total area of 70,000 ha in 2015 and is mostly cultured in northern central coast and central Vietnam. However, in recent years more and more farms using intensive production systems have been switching from P. monodon to L. vannamei in southern Vietnam. The first super-intensive indoor L. vannamei farm is operated by the hatchery specialist Viet Uc, known for innovation in the shrimp industry and located in Bac Lieu. Some farmers are organized in associations, for example the My Thanh shrimp association in Soc Trang province. This is a group of over 160 farmers that work together to learn from each other and to tackle production challenges they face. In Ca Mau province, different governmental and NGO projects are also focussed at creating cooperatives in the form of farmer clusters. There is, for example, a cluster of extensive shrimp farmers in Tan Long hamlet near Ca Mau city, and another cluster of farmers can be found in Nhi Nguyet hamlet, Tran Phan commune, Dam Doi district. Similar to the aims of My Thanh shrimp association, their goal is to learn from each other and to strengthen the position of individual farmers by being part of a larger group.  

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