Super-intensive indoor shrimp farming
Super-intensive indoor shrimp farming is a rather recent development that started in Vietnam in 2011 with some trials in Bac Lieu province. Even though it requires very high investment costs, it is a possible future direction of development. Stocking densities are much higher compared to other production systems and the farms are completely isolated from their surroundings, with ponds being located in a green-house. This can be very beneficial for the water quality in natural waterways, when discharge water is treated properly.
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Type of farmers
So far only a few farms in Bac Lieu province use super-intensive indoor production. These farms are part of vertically integrated companies. The main company behind the introduction of indoor shrimp farming is Viet Uc who harvest its first successful crop from its farm in July 2015.
Production and harvesting system
Average farm size is unknown, as super intensive indoor farming is still in its trial phase. These farms practice monoculture and own several ponds. Pond sizes typically range from 0.3 to 0.35 ha. The ponds are situated in a green-house and are completely isolated from the external environment. Water is recirculated during an entire cycle.
Partial harvest takes place in the second month of grow-out cycle in order to control biomass. Total harvest is at the end of the grow-out cycle. Average harvest size is 40-60 pcs/kg HOSO.
Target species and byproducts
So far, super-intensive farming is only practiced with Litopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp) and not with Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp) or other species.
Stocking densities and productivity
Farmers stock their ponds with hatchery PL which are screened for viruses before stocking. Average stocking density is 200-500 PL/m2. Annual production is 120-240 tonnes/ha/year.
Use of seed, feed and other inputs
The companies involved in super intensive indoor farming have control over the entire production cycle and are able to produce very high quality seed. They source their PL from their own hatcheries and have their own integrated nurseries.
Shrimp are fed commercial pellet feed, which is dispensed by an automated system. Super-intensive farms do not work with chemicals but do use probiotics.